A complete or comprehensive eye exam is the only way to ensure total eye health and diagnose any eye-related health issues.  It is more than checking to see if your vision is 20/20 and handing out a prescription.  Many factors can effect your eye health, and a complete eye exam takes all of those factors into account before taking further action.

The following tests are the most commonly performed, however your optometrist may choose to add additional tests if complications are perceived.

Steps that you can expect in your eye exam include:

Case history – you will be asked about your general health, medications you may be taking, your working environment, hobbies, etc. You will also be asked to describe any vision problems you may have been experiencing.

External eye examination – Your Doctor will examine the external area around the eye to ensure that there are no abnormalities.

Internal eye examination – Using the slit lamp microscope and an ophthalmoscope, your Doctor will check your eyes for indications of abnormalities, from front to back.Some problems detected during an internal eye examination may indicate possible disease, such as diabetes or hypertension. If your optometrist sees any of these warning signs, you will be scheduled for further examinations.

Tonometry – Tonometry measures the fluid pressure in the eye and is an important test in detecting glaucoma.

Vision tests – A number of tests are used to assess your vision:

Retinoscopy – The Doctor of Optometry can determine the strength of your eyes using various lenses and the retinoscope. This is done without feedback from the patient and is therefore an invaluable instrument for assessing the vision problems of children and others who may not be able to read an eye chart.

Visual acuity tests – Using the familiar wall chart your Doctor will assess your ability to see small detail clearly at both near and far distances. You may sit behind a phoropter, an instrument containing a combination of lenses. Lens choices are systematically changed until clear focus is obtained.

Eye movement – Using a number of different tests, the Doctor will evaluate how well your eyes align or coordinate when working together and individually

Peripheral vision – Your Doctor may evaluate how well you see targets which are not directly in front of you.
Other tests may be undertaken to evaluate your ability to change focus, see colour correctly, or perceive depth correctly.